About Pests

  • Ants

    Ants

    Habitats:
    • Most species build their nests outdoor in moist environment such as in soil, rotten woods, rotten logs, leaf axils, leaf litters, tree holes, under potted plants/rocks, etc.
    • Some species build their nests indoor such as wall voids, other cracks and crevices, behind baseboards, electrical switch boxes, etc.

    Diets:
    • Feed on almost any types of food preferably sugar-, protein-, and oil-based foods.

    Habits:
    • Social insects, living in an organized colony and have a clearly defined role for each individual.
    • Groom and exchange food/liquid among nestmates.
    • Lay pheromone trail when forage to lead the nestmates to the food source and aid them back to their nest.
    • Release defence and attack pheromones to send alarm signals to their nestmates.

    Importance:
    • Nuisance
    • Mechanical vectors of various pathogenic diseases such as salmonellosis, etc.
    • Ant bites/stings may cause pustules and blisters.
    • Contaminate food and surgical instruments in hospitals.

  • Bees

    Bees

    Habitats:
    • Wall, attics, trees, shrubs, and cavities such as holes in the ground, lofts, wall cavities, etc.
    Diets:

    • Feed on nectars, pollens, honeydew saps, fallen fruits, and sugar-rich plant foods. Some wasps and hornets are predators, feeding on insects/spiders.

    Habits:
    • Solitory, living independently/social insects, living in an organized colony and have a clearly defined role for each individual.
    • Remain docile unless they are provoked.
    • Release an alarm pheromone upon stinging to recruit their nestmates to join in the attack.
    • Release an attack pheromone when their nest is threaten.

    Importance:
    • Inflict painful stings along with swelling and redness. Their stings can be severe and fatal.
    • Damage to structures.

  • Cockroaches

    Cockroaches

    Habitats:
    • Most species build their nests outdoor in moist environment such as in soil, rotten woods, rotten logs, leaf axils, leaf litters, tree holes, under potted plants/rocks, etc.
    • Some species build their nests indoor such as wall voids, other cracks and crevices, behind baseboards, electrical switch boxes, etc.

    Diets:
    • Feed on organic matters such as meat, grease, starchy and sugary types of food, etc.

    Habits:
    • Always live in a group.
    • Active at night and usually hide during the day.
    • Prefer to move along the side of the walls rather than open spaces.

    Infestation signs:
    • Live/dead cockroaches.
    • Egg cases.
    • Droppings.
    • Cast skins.

    Importance:
    • Contaminate food and utensils with their droppings, vomitus, and pathogens.
    • Mechanical vectors of various pathogenic diseases such as poliomyelitis, coxsackie, shiegellosis, salmonellosis, etc.
    • May cause asthma and allergies.

  • Flies

    Flies

    Habitats:
    • Prefer warm and damp areas.
    • Live indoor such as damp books and papers, areas with leaking or sweating pipes, stored products, etc./outdoor such as underneath loose tree barks, dead foliages, ground litters, rock surfaces, etc.

    Diets:
    • Feed on mould, mildew, and fungi.

    Habits:
    • Migrate to damper areas if relative humidity drops below a critical level.

    Importance:
    • Nuisance.

  • Mosquitoes

    Mosquitoes

    Habitats:
    • Breed in stagnant water sources such as plant axils, roof gutters, drains, tyres, tin cans, flower pots, etc.

    Diets:
    • Males and females feed on nectars and juices.
    • Only females feed on blood because they require blood meals to develop their eggs.

    Habits:
    • Active after sunrise and before sunset (Aedes mosquitoes).
    • Active at night (Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes).
    • Prefer dark colours.

    Importance:
    • Transmit various diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, etc.

  • Rats/Rodents

    Rats/Rodents

    Habitats:
    • Underground burrows (Sewer rats).
    • Above ground such as attics, rafters, eaves, trees, bushes, shrubs, etc. (Roof rats).
    • Near to stored food (House mice).

    Diets:
    • Omnivores – feed on plant and animal materials.

    Habits:
    • Active at night.
    • Gnaw to keep their continuously growing teeth short.
    • Can climb, jump, and swim very well.

    Infestation signs:
    • Live/dead rodents.
    • Droppings.
    • Gnaw marks.
    • Footprints/tail marks/grease marks.
    • Runways.
    • Musky odour.
    • Crackling/scrambling/gnawing sounds produced by rodents.

    Importance:
    • Contaminate food and water with their urines and droppings.
    • Transmit various diseases such as leptospirosis, plague, salmonellosis, lyme disease, etc.
    • Damage/destroy numerous materials.

  • Termites

    Termites

    Habitats:
    • Build nest in the soil and dependent on soil for moisture.
    • Construct mud tubes to search for food to avoid desiccation.

    Diets:
    • Feed on any cellulose-based materials such as wood, books, papers, etc.

    Habits:
    • Social insects, living in an organized colony and have a clearly defined role for each individual.
    • Groom and exchange food/liquid among nestmates.
    • Lay pheromone trail when forage to recruit more nestmates to colonise food sources.
    • Generate vibration by bashing their head against structure/nest to send alarm signals to their nestmates.

    Infestation signs:
    • Dispersal of alates/swarmers.
    • Presence of mud tubes.
    • Damages caused by termite attacks.

    Importance:
    • Damages caused by termite attacks.
    • Damage/destroy buildings and structures.



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